Mongolia’s Uncommon Earths Diplomacy and Its Geopolitical Implications – The Diplomat

Mongolia, wealthy in minerals particularly copper and uncommon earths, however sandwiched between China and Russia, is making a pivotal shift towards a “third neighbor” – the USA. Throughout a latest go to to Washington, Prime Minister Oyun-Erdene Luvsannamsrai aimed to fortify U.S. ties regarding important minerals and significantly to boost cooperation in uncommon earth mining. Moreover, Mongolia and the U.S. brokered an “Open Skies” aviation settlement, meant to bolster direct commerce.

Ought to these agreements be realized and uncommon earths air-shipped from Mongolia to the USA, what are the implications for China-U.S. strategic competitors? 

“Chokepoint” Technique 

The China-U.S. relationship has been the world’s most pivotal bilateral dynamic because the finish of the Chilly Struggle. Lately, competitors has taken priority over cooperation between these two superpowers, with Beijing and Washington jockeying for benefit from commerce and expertise to manage over important mineral provide chains.

International provide chains have advanced on account of two intertwined components: developments in ICT and cross-border logistics, together with the discount in institutional limitations facilitated by organizations just like the WTO. Consequently, provide chain administration has turn into essential for optimizing effectivity, cost-effectiveness, and uninterrupted capital and data flows for each companies and nationwide economies. 

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Nonetheless, provide chains current a paradox: As they develop extra complicated, weaving in multilayered arrays of suppliers every chosen for his or her aggressive benefits, additionally they turn into extra susceptible to exterior shocks. This consists of pure disasters, pandemics, and unpredictable geopolitical shifts. Current occasions just like the China-U.S. tech struggle and the financial sanctions on Russia following its invasion of Ukraine spotlight the fragility of immediately’s world provide chains.

Within the context of a risky geopolitical setting, sure chokepoints inside provide chains are considered potential vulnerabilities. A “chokepoint” denotes a important and irreplaceable element or hyperlink inside a provide chain, prone to manage by probably adversarial entities. At its core, a chokepoint is characterised by a type of monopoly. Whereas companies could wield monopolies to realize heightened financial positive aspects, nations usually domesticate them for political goals. Past the institution of monopolies to create strategic chokepoints, another and extra aggressive technique additionally exists: concentrating on an opponent’s chokepoint to deliberately disrupt their essential provide.

Within the competitors between the USA and China, each nations are using chokepoint methods. To start out, the U.S. utilized its dominant place inside semiconductor provide chains to exert intensive technological and geopolitical affect. This maneuver successfully curbs China’s progress in superior chipmaking. China, in response, has applied its personal countermeasures, together with export controls of important metals. These reciprocal actions have transcended the realm of financial sanctions, signifying a broader type of financial warfare between the 2 powers.

Within the midst of those numerous measures and countermeasures, China holds a wild card: its management over the separation and refinement of uncommon earths. Presently, China is the only real supplier of a steady, uninterrupted provide of high-energy everlasting magnets appropriate for high-temperature functions akin to electrical motors utilized in EVs.

The Geopolitics of Uncommon Earths

Uncommon earths play an important function in quite a few fashionable applied sciences. Particularly, the fast progress of renewable power and associated applied sciences, akin to electrical autos, wind and photo voltaic power, spurred a 37 % improve in uncommon earths demand in 2022, a development anticipated to proceed for not less than the following 5 years. But, the provision chains for uncommon earths are mired in geopolitical vulnerability. Notably, China boasts probably the most substantial pure reserves of all 17 uncommon earth parts and has cultivated a novel capacity to refine and separate every one.

Furthermore, since 2012, China has intensified its efforts to maneuver up the worth chain. Notably, it has consolidated uncommon earth mining and processing below state-owned enterprises and established pivotal analysis facilities. Regardless of commencing patent filings practically 20 years after the USA and Japan, China held greater than 80 % of all uncommon earth-related patents by 2020.

China is now the biggest importer and exporter of uncommon earths, that means it controls the majority of uncommon earth processing together with refinement, separation, and fabricating magnet supplies. Through the first half of 2023, China imported 90,920 tons of uncommon earth ores and metals, a considerable portion from the USA, and exported 26,236 tons of refined uncommon earths, primarily magnet supplies. Whereas theoretically possible, decoupling from China’s uncommon earth provide chains would contain substantial prices and probably disruptive provide chain stability.

Past simply uncommon earths, China is the main and most cost-effective provider of many important minerals important for clear power transition. Given the geopolitical and environmental dangers tied to mining and processing minerals, considerations about uncommon earth provide safety have intensified. Recognizing their potential vulnerability to Chinese language restrictions, Western governments are actively searching for to stage the enjoying area. This consists of searching for to diversify mining sources and constructing services unbiased of China’s enter.

Within the face of geopolitical competitors between the U.S.-led West and China, extra nations, together with Mongolia, are gravitating towards the democratic bloc to mitigate dangers from China’s dominance in important provide chains. Reacting to a collection of export controls and expertise sanctions on semiconductors imposed towards it, China has felt compelled to make use of reciprocal actions. 

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For instance, Beijing, with precision and deliberation, initially curtailed exports of gallium and germanium – two uncommon metals integral to the manufacturing of a number of strategically vital merchandise, together with army weapons programs. This transfer got here within the wake of China’s new International Relations Legislation enacted on July 1, which asserts that the nation could make use of countermeasures when dealing with exterior restrictions. Furthermore, the latest introduction of China’s drone export management coverage signifies a possible escalation in these tit-for-tat measures.

In mild of China’s countermeasures, the Pentagon is investigating partnerships with U.S. and Canadian firms to recycle uncommon metals from waste and refine each gallium and germanium. Moreover, the USA has declared limitations on American investments in China’s tech sector. 

Given this backdrop, the Mongolian prime minister’s go to to Washington to debate potential uncommon earth collaborations might be seen as bolstering the USA’ place, probably tipping the steadiness of energy on this geopolitical tug-of-war.

Can Mongolia’s Uncommon Earths Diplomacy Shift the Energy Stability? 

The potential uncommon earth partnership between the USA and Mongolia holds promise for mutual positive aspects. For the U.S., the collaboration might serve to diversify its sources of uncommon earths. In the meantime, Mongolia stands to learn from expanded diplomatic ties and potential U.S. investments that might gas its financial progress. Nonetheless, as with every worldwide relationship, the satan is within the particulars.

A number of vital limitations forged shadows over the potential partnership. First, the financial viability of mining uncommon earths, which are available oxide concentrations starting from 1 % to 70 %, is much from assured. Uncertainties persist relating to the standard of Mongolia’s uncommon earth reserves and the requisite funding for extraction and processing. 

Second, Mongolia could face home opposition to uncommon earths mining operations, which include a heavy environmental price. Throughout its complete worth chain, this course of consumes substantial power and water assets whereas producing numerous wastes and pollution, together with poisonous mining residues, wastewater laden with heavy metals, radioactive waste, and air pollution akin to carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. China realized this lesson the exhausting method: Reviews point out that it might take anyplace from 50 to 100 years for the setting to totally get better in a county in Jiangxi Province the place heavy uncommon earth deposits are wealthy. The estimated price ticket for this restoration is roughly 38 billion yuan, equal to round $5.5 billion.

Third, the absence of important infrastructure in Mongolia, together with satisfactory roads for transporting heavy equipment and dependable electrical energy, compounds the challenges. Paradoxically, Mongolia’s finest hope for addressing this case is China. The 2 nations have agreed to cooperate on a wide range of infrastructure initiatives, together with cross-border railways, commerce ports, and roads and highways.

Lastly, Mongolia’s landlocked standing leaves it reliant on highway transport to succeed in the closest Chinese language ports for world commerce. Whereas the “Open Skies” aviation settlement presents another, the price of air delivery minerals can simply negate any financial advantages. Moreover, the settlement’s implementation is determined by the consent of both China or Russia, as their airspace have to be crossed for flights to proceed.

Subsequently, although bolstered ties between the USA and Mongolia may very well be disadvantageous for China geopolitically, Mongolia’s pivot appears extra symbolic than rooted in financial pragmatism. The potential disadvantage of this shift is that it might jeopardize the prevailing cooperation between China and Mongolia. China stays the most important vacation spot for Mongolia’s mineral exports, together with copper and coal. Ought to Mongolia decisively tilt towards the West, Mongolia’s exports might face constraints.


As China-U.S. tensions escalate, different nations usually really feel pressured to align with one in every of these superpowers. Smaller nations have much less weight in shifting the China-U.S. dynamic than bigger ones, and however their selections mirror shared geopolitical anxieties. As identified by Oyun-Erdene, nations like his personal might undergo significantly if superpower competitors boiled over.

Within the race towards time to fight local weather change, world unity moderately than fragmentation is the necessity of the hour.


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